It is not allowed for any kind of commercial use without prior agreement. Reproductions and circulations in printed
format or electronic format (offline) are allowed only to the exclusive scientific, didactical and documentary use,
as long as these documents are not altered in any substantial way, and, in particular, are kept with correct
indications of date, paternity and original source (by quotation).
Link from other websites are welcome, especially if the editing will be informed to the editorial board
(email@example.com) so as to facilitate the timely communication of following
Any kind of mirroring (duplications) on other sites is forbidden. Any automatic capture of the texts on other sites,
without specifics agreement with the editorial board, is also forbidden.
In most cases, no special rules need to be followed for typing in verses; the program usually recognises consonantal
Is and Us, so that users may freely write U or V, I or J, in any position.
Instances have been recorded, however, in which the program stated it was unable to scan some verses or wavered
between different possibilities, and therefore required additional information to accept an anomaly or solve an ambiguity.
The solution in cases such as these is to add an explanatory note just after the problematic word, so as to present it again
according to conventions that will clear any syllabification, prosodic, phonetic or syntactic doubts.
This note will have to be marked by the characters (= e ) and only contain capitals and conventional symbols.
Since the program will not syllabify the content in brackets, it is strictly necessary to provide all the information required:
users must mark Us and Is as either vowels or consonants (U and I = vowels; V and J = consonants; JJ = intervocalic I),
as well as all diphthongs and hiatuses in vowel sequences. The non-alphabetical marks that may be used are:
separates two vowels in a hiatus both within the same word (A_ERA) and between words (EPHYRE_)
combines two or more vocals through a diphthong or synizesis (RE.I)
assigns a short quantity to the preceding vowel (NI-SI)
assigns a long quantity to the preceding vowel (DI+U)
replaces a dropped S (TORVU')
N.B.: in the explanatory notes the marks- (short) and + (long) replace the usual
because they are easier to type
Let us consider the most common cases in which it may be necessary to insert an explanatory note (= ).
1) Distinguishing U and I.
The need to distinguish the vowels U and I from the consonants V and J may arise in some cases
in which the program is incapable of making this distinction itself:
Two homographs with different syllabification ? in a metrical context in which both words would be acceptable ?
can only be distinguished based on the semantic context. For example:
Ter sine profectu uoluit nitentia contra
Auulsum montis uoluit latus, obuia passim
In these verses both VOLUIT and VOLVIT would be metrically acceptable: the program, therefore,
requires a distinction to be made through an explanatory note:
Ter sine profectu uoluit(=VOLUIT) nitentia contra
Auulsum montis uoluit(=VOLVIT) latus, obuia passim
In the following verse, Troia could be either bisyllabic or trisyllabic; hence it is necessary to specify:
Troia(=TROIA) Rhoeteo quem subter litore tellus
Exceptional consonantalisation of vocalic Is or Us. Since this phenomenon is not covered by the program's rules,
it must be flagged through a note providing J and V in place of I and U. For example:
Fluviorum(=FLUVJORUM) rex Eridanus camposque per omnis
Italiam fato profugus Laviniaque(=LAVINJAQVE) venit
At nunc, exaequet tetricas licet ilia(=ILJA) Sabinas,
Ebulliat(=EBULLJAT) patruus, praeclarum funus!" et "o si
Iuli(=JULI) Flore, quibus terrarum militet oris
Hieremiam(=HJEREMIAM) dixere alii paruisse profetam.
Fluminis os, diri ripas habitant Iaxartae(=JAXARTAE).
Linquitur hic quaedam latitandi copia tenuis(=TENVIS),
Atque aliis extenuantur(=EXTENVANTUR) tabentque uicissim.
Exceptional vocalisation of consonantal Is and Us: the phenomenon must be
flagged with a note providing I and U in place of J and V. For example:
Egregio comitata uiro; nam proximus Iob(=IOB)
Vt medium ualli, pax nostra, resoluit Iesus(=IESUS)
"Nonne hic est fabri suboles, cui nomen Ioseph(=IOSEPH)?
Nunc quoque te saluo persoluenda(=PERSOLUENDA) mihi.
2) Use of the mark . between two (or three) vowels..
The odd formation of a diphthong: this always requires an explanatory note. For example:
Nec radicitus e vita se tollit et eicit(=E.ICIT),
Quod si forte fuisse antehac(=ANTE.H.AC) eadem omnia credis,
Omnibus his Thesei dulcem praeoptarit(=PRA.E.OPTARIT) amorem,
Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat, dehinc(=DE.H.INC) talia fatur:
Rege sub Eurystheo(=EURYSTHE.O) fatis Iunonis iniquae
Deicere(=DE.ICERE) de saxo civis aut tradere Cadmo?"
Ecce deum in numero formatus et aeneus(=A.ENEUS) astat AËNEUS, which is quadrisyllabic as a rule, is here marked as being exceptionally trisyllabic
Et cum patre pia regebat sublimis in aere(=A.ERE), si segnala che AËRE è qui eccezionalmente bisillabo
The disambiguation of homographs. For example:
Extremam, ut perhibent, Coeo(=CO.EO) Enceladoque sororem the personal name is usually bisyllabic, but must be distinguished from the homographic verbal
form COËO, which is trisyllabic
(one must bear in mind that the program makes no distinctions between capital and small letters)
3) The use of the mark _ between two vowels.
The program detects words containing the bisyllabic groups AE, OE and AU.
The few instances in which further specification may be required may be boiled down to the following circumstances:
Homographs, such as aera/aëra, which are not solved by the metrical context. For example:
Et quasi permanare per aeris(=A_ERIS) interuallum. since both homographs, AËRIS (trisyllabic) and AERIS (bisyllabic), would be possible in the metrical context,
it is necessary to further specify
Aera(=A_ERA) tabificum. Non ullo saecula dono since both homographs, AËRA (trisyllabic) and AERA (bisyllabic), would be possible in the metrical context,
it is necessary to further specify
The odd loosening of a dyphthong. For example:
Siquis forte manu premere ac siccare coepit(=CO_EPIT). here it is necessary to note that COEPIT is exceptionally trisyllabic
Sole dies lunamque dein(=DE_IN) patiuntur in ortus
here it is necessary to note the lack of synizesis in a vowel group that
poets usually treat as being monosyllabic
4) The use of the mark _ to indicate the position of a hiatus.
The program may fail to scan a verse because it cannot choose between several positions for a
hiatus; in such cases, the mark _ must be added at the end of the word where the hiatus occurs; for example:
Atque Ephyre(=EPHYRE_) atque Opis et Asia Deiopea
Atque Getae(=GETAE_) atque Hebrus et Actias Orithyia.
Quis melior plorante gula(=GULA_)? ergo omnia fiunt,
In statione sua(=SUA_) atque expectantibus illam,
5) Assigning an unusual prosody to a word.
The program envisages the possibility that the prosody of word may vary or ? as is far more common ?
that different prosodies may simply be due to homography. Still, very unusual prosodies may occur
that the program is not familiar with and which must therefore be marked through an explanatory note. For example:
Atque eius(=E-JUS) ipse manet religatus corpore torto;
Principium cuius(=CU-JUS) hinc nobis exordia sumet, in these two cases, the addition of note to mark the short quantity of the vowel (-)
prevents the lengthening of the first syllable after the intervocalic I
Quis nunc diligitur nisi conscius et cui(=CU-I-) feruens CUI is here marked as being bisyllabic and having unusual quantities
Adnuit(=ADNU+IT) sese mecum decernere ferro the note marks that the unusual quantity of the U in the word ADNUIT
6) The drop of an S must always be marked by replacing the letter with the mark ' (apostrophe).
Orionis(=ORIONI') iacet levipes Lepus. Hic fugit, ictus